A compilation of research from Neil MacQueen
Olives, Olive oil
Lamb, goat, eggs, beef, chicken
Sheep and goat's milk to make butter and various kinds of cheese.
They ate lettuce, spinach, beets, kale, radishes, turnips, carrots, artichokes, black cala, leek, onion, garlic, cucumber, watermelon and squash. They also gathered wild herbs or tended herb gardens (which we know we taxed).
They drank wine. It was not fermented for long because they didn't have appropriate vessels for that, so it was probably sweet, and they cut it with water. Water was not clean or sweet in many places so wine helped with that problem.
We know they made a type of beer as well, first brewed by the Egyptians and made with and flavored with all sorts of ingredients. It's important to note that fermented beverages were not just for parties. They were a portable source of 'clean' water, high in calories (an important fact in ancient times), and an efficient way to use grains and fruit that were past their prime.
They made date honey (really a kind of syrup) and wine from the dates.
Fruit was an important part of their diet. Fruit trees archeologists have found from the time of Jesus: pomegranates, peaches, apples, and pears. They also ate nuts, including walnuts, almonds, carob and pistachios.
They did make sweetened desserts with honey or date syrup. They had a lot of cakes and deserts, but didn't eat them all the time.
There was no corn (maize)
There were no potatoes
There were no avocados
There was no chocolate
There were no tomatoes
There were no chili or bell peppers
All these things came from the Americas.
They didn't eat pork
They didn't eat shellfish
They didn't eat animals that had been hunted