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This article was originally posted by Neil MacQueen for It has been updated with additional ideas and observations gleaned from member comments.

Workshop Rotation in Small Churches, Few Kids

Though the Rotation Model originally took root in mid-to-large size churches, thousands of smaller churches have since embraced and proven the scalability of Rotation Model concepts and practices. The Workshop Rotation Model can easily be adapted in small churches that have few students, or few classes, or little space. In fact, it might even be easier to do Rotation in a smaller church than a big one!

"Small" and "few," of course, are relative terms. Some "small" congregations have lots of kids, and some big congregations have very few kids.

For our purposes here, I am defining "small" as fewer than 12 regularly attending elementary-age children.

I've done Rotation in churches with 75 regular attenders, 35, and just 8. I've done it in wealthy churches and those counting their nickels. But the blessed thing is, in each church the Rotation principles, workshops, stories, and creativity were the same. The only thing that really changed was how many rooms we had for workshops and how many teachers we needed to recruit.

In one of my small Sunday Schools, we were heavy with younger kids (future older kids!), and in the other church we had a whole bunch of 3rd and 4th graders, but not many in K and 1st. There is no rule that every year and every age-grouping has to always be the same. If next year you need to group 1st graders with your 2nd and 3rd graders, do it. If you have 1 Kindergartner, put them in with the 1st-3rd. For me, the most important consideration was optimal class size to be able to pull off certain activities. Many games and dramas are hard to do with just 2 or 3 kids.   

One of the BIG ADVANTAGES of being in a small church is that the kids tend to know each other better than they would in a large church. They also tend to be siblings. Thus I don't worry about including the 1st and 2nd graders in with the 3rd and 4th from time to time.

Here's the kind of Workshop Rotation schedule we used in my "smallest" church, though we did computer rather than drama. We also did it in only two rooms. Halfway through the schedule, we converted each of the two rooms into a different workshop (our video became the art workshop, our computer room became the game workshop. And we used the church kitchen for cooking when we decided to schedule a cooking workshop for a story.


The optimal class size for one Sunday School teacher is arguably about five children of similar age. Larger class sizes or numbers of classes/workshops are easier to scale up to in Rotation because they simply require more helpers, materials, and space.

If you routinely have just 3 or 4 kids, and fewer on certain Sundays, then you may want to EXCLUDE using certain workshops, The drama and game workshops, for example, typically regularly need four or five kids to pull off without much adaptation. Whereas, workshops like Art, Cooking, Computers, and LEGOS work well with just 2 or 3 kids.

In small Sunday Schools, we also face attendance fluctuations caused by seasonal attendance and a family that supplies us with many kids suddenly not showing up on a given Sunday. On some Sundays in small programs, this means you can have just 1 or 2 kids in a class, or sometimes NO kids in a particular class. Such fluctuations tend to bother the teachers more than the kids. One way to deal with these fluctuations is to PREDICT THEM and schedule accordingly. Talk to your parents and ask them if there are certain Sundays they know they won't be there. Schedule certain "size sensitive" workshops, like Games and Drama, when you know you'll have enough kids. See some of the tips below for how to go with that flow!

There's another way to schedule your workshops in a small Sunday School where Sunday-to-Sunday attendance can be unpredictable. I call it the "Split/Combine" option.


See a video clip that explains this "split and combine" approach
when attendance is small and unpredictable.

The assumption here is that "splitting" into two different age groups is always better for the kids when you have enough kids to create two functional classes.

What's a functional minimum? That depends on your activities and the ages of the kids who are there THAT Sunday. TWO kids per workshop is a good minimum. That means if you have three kids in attendance, you should probably group them together.

  • If you have four, five, or six kids of similar age, keep them together.

  • If you have four or more kids in attendance, but some are very young, and some are very old, then you'll probably want to split them.

The key strategy in the "Split or Combine" Schedule is to have two teachers plan for two identical but age-grouped workshops. Then on each Sunday "at 8:59 am" you see who is in attendance and split or combine accordingly.

If you combine all the kids, the teachers combine too. Depending on the workshop activity and level of age-adapting you need to do, you can have the older kids do a "break out" or separate study within the combined class --something that's much easier to pull off when one of the teachers has already prepared for the "older" lesson anyway!

Art usually doesn't require many students. Games often do --depending on the game. Software is easy just with one student if that's all you have!  But the student may feel "by themselves" if you're watching a video.  This is why the decision to split or combine isn't always based on numbers.

The reason you plan and teach two identical workshops in this "Split or Combine" scheduling trick is so that regular attenders get a new type of workshop each week no matter whether they were combined or split the week before. (If you try and hold two different workshops on the first week, like art and drama, but on the second week combine everyone into art, your regular attenders will say "I already did that." Place two identical but age-adapted workshops each week makes sure regular attenders get a new workshop each week.)

See a video clip that explains this "split and combine" approach
when attendance is small and unpredictable.

Important Considerations for WoRM in the Small Church:

"Workshop" refers to the exciting way you teach. It doesn't have to mean a "dedicated art room" or "dedicated games space." Instead, rooms can pull double-duty -- being an art workshop one week and video workshop the next. You'll still want to creative "transform" the atmosphere each week if reusing the same room, and that can be done with a couple of "tricks" like hanging a backdrop and shoving tables and chairs to one side of the room. On the weeks when our Art Workshop became our Video Workshop, we brought in five of those plastic stackable adirondack-style chairs you see sold everywhere, folded up the tables, and pulled out the popcorn machine!

That said, many small programs have plenty of rooms, and it's just a lot EASIER if you have different spaces you can leave SET UP and you can rotate into week to week.  Leaving a room set up to teach drama, or with computers or using art—is one of the "GREAT INNOVATIONS & RELIEFS" that Rotation Model brings to any size Sunday School. Not having to change the room around every week is a real blessing.

(See more suggestions below about limited space.)

Small Church Rotation Models can usually get away with one or two teachers doing all four workshops. I myself would often teach 2 of the 4 workshops in my small churches. Keep in mind that some volunteers might not be good at preparing to teach two different creative workshops each month. This is another nice thing about smaller programs: I was there to help those teachers do the preparation. Otherwise, you still want to recruit different teachers to staff your different workshops in a small church (great way to get parents involved, btw).

It's not uncommon for small Sunday Schools to be run by two teachers who split up the workshops.  Those teachers need to bring in special helpers (teens and other adults) to stay creative and share the burden. They should also plan breaks in their schedule.

Four weeks per story is still considered a "minimum" number of weeks for most stories/passages regardless of the size of your program.


Don't give up and "go back to boring." You want the kids you DO have to love learning God's Word, increase their attendance, and attract new attenders.

How to find more students immediately!

As mentioned above, most groups work best when you have a sense of "critical mass."  The difference between 2 kids and 4 kids in a class is dramatic. Not only does it feel better to the kids, the level of energy and activity is different, and what you can DO is different.

So....If you only have 2 or 3 kids, invite some teens or older adults to form an intergenerational class with the kids. You might just get much more than you hoped for!

Older kids, especially, don't like to be "one of the few" as they equate number with "cool." Inviting a Jr. High or grandparent, pastor or parent on a regular basis can help the kids feel like they are part of a community.

You can also gain extra students by asking couples and entire families to "teach a workshop together."

Plan special workshops and activities that INVITE the friends of your children. For example, encourage the younger kids to have a friend sleepover the night before and bring them to a special Breakfast Cooking Workshop or Seder Meal.

Promote, promote, promote. Tell your story. Always ask grandparents to bring their grandkids. Always welcome friends and make sure you send something home about your program.

Begin to view "few" kids as a special opportunity to do some special things for those kids! Never make "the few" feel like "not enough."

For example, many churches with large classes might never attempt a "carpentry" project because of the tool and material requirements, but with just 2 students, you can have an AWESOME hands-on carpentry workshop led by a woodworker in your congregation who wouldn't otherwise teach. And doing a computer workshop is a lot easier and less expensive if you have just two kids.

Have a creative back-up plan for those Sundays when few of your "few kids" show up. (See more suggestions below.)

Small Churches with Very Limited Workshop Space

Small churches with limited classroom/workshop space have found the following to be helpful:

1. Definitely schedule a Cooking Workshop so your church kitchen can be one of your workshops.

2. Drama and Games and Video do well in OPEN spaces, or using the same room.  To set up your space or room for video, bring in stackable Adirondack-style chairs or director's chairs that can be removed for the Game Workshop next week.  Hang Drama workshop costumes and on the wall or in a cabinet to clear floor space. Have a taut wire across the ceiling to hang a fun curtain on Drama Workshop week.

3. Set up an outdoor space or a tent at the end of a low-traffic hallway.

4. Use laptops, instead of desktops, so your computers don't' take up space in your classroom that needs to be used differently the following week.

5. Come up with creative and QUICK WAYS to transform your single room every week into a new space.

6. Look for other types of space if you don't have enough classrooms. I've heard of computers and drama spaces set up at the end of hallways, games in parking lots, and videos shown in the Pastor's Cindy's Cinema (which she taught once a month in her office).

Our SHARED SPACE ARTICLE has many great ideas.

See the posts below for more GREAT IDEAS for SMALL WoRMS!

Your replies and suggestions welcome.


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Last edited by Neil MacQueen
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"Tips for Small Churches"

...collected ideas from posts here at our site:


  1. Some workshops, such as, the Bible Games and Drama workshops, can be harder with small numbers unless you are careful about the KINDS of games or dramas you use.

    Big group games need to be reformatted. Kids can play multiple roles in dramas.

    Whereas, other workshops, like art, computers and cooking are EASY with small numbers, and where attendance varies unpredictably.
  2. Some workshops or styles of lessons that involve more READING and comprehension are harder in small churches where the age range might be BROADER.  

    Take a close look at your lessons and look for ways to make sure your younger kids aren't ignored or lost, and your lessons aren't "beneath" your older kids in a broadly graded situation.
  3. In many small churches, teachers have to teach more than ONE workshop. It's a good idea to have them teach back to back weeks in the rotation so that they maintain some continuity.
  4. In churches with just one or two rotating classes, but a larger number of rooms (as is sometimes the case in an older/larger facility), it's a good idea to put out a SIGN in the hallway to tell parents where their kids' class is that week.
  5. It may be harder in a small church to be as creative as the Rotation Model wants to be (because you have fewer people helping), so look for EASY creativity, as opposed to complex.

    For example, don't burn volunteer time on painting extensive "Bible" murals, instead, bring in creative props, such as, a beach or camp theme. 

    Use the Writing Team's lessons, instead of writing your own, or cobbling together lessons from incomplete posts found elsewhere. 

    Purchased Rotation curriculum all seems to be written for class sizes of 5+ kids.
  6.  Don't SKIMP !  You want more kids.

    Posted by Sandy W:
    Definitely do not get discouraged. When I started rotation, I sometimes had only 3 children there and I do multi-age, so this was all the children there in total, not just in one group. I stuck with it because I believed in it. After one year, we average 15 kids every sunday. Rotation works, kids will begin to tell friends and it will become contagious. I have kids that set their alarm clocks and wake their parents up because they don't want to miss Sunday School. Hang in there!!!

    Posted by NancyDir:
    Yes we can! We started our rotation out with 3 children. The kid's had a blast then and after 5 years they still coming are along with the 37 children which have joined us since starting rotation!
  7. Note your PEAK attendance times of the year and roll out your "big" rotations then. Plan for easier or less-attendance dependent activities during your LOW times of the year.
  8. Because Week to Week Attendance can FLUCTUATE greatly in small churches, recruit an extra helper to show up and "check in" at the beginning of every workshop to see if extra help is needed.
  9. Treat your older students like helpers so they don't feel like they're being treated like one of the "little kids".  Give them special roles and tasks. "Graduate" them to "Guide" status or the like, while they continue to help in the classroom. Give them visible roles.
  10. Here's one of the BIG ADVANTAGES of doing the Rotation Model in smaller churches that have broadly graded classed:  ACTIVE creative approaches AGE ADJUST easier than typical sedentary "worksheet centered" curriculum.   Cooking and Art, for example, tend to age adjust all on their own. 
  11. On those Sundays when FEW children attend, pull out something really special to do or snack on. Kids are aware of "where is everybody?" so don't reinforce that feeling. Instead, make them glad they were the only ones there.  
  12. Always have a back-up workshop or lesson plan for those weeks when your attendance is problematic. The computer workshop is our kids favorite "let's play!" workshop (though they are really learning, just don't tell them!).   Some Sundays, we'll ditch the lesson plan and go help set up communion. One Sunday we got a tour of the organ and the kids were allowed to play it. They loved that.  Have a few of these "emergency plan" activities pre-planned and ready so it's no surprise to the organist or pastor.  This also keeps the kids from thinking that the "big game workshop with only 2 of us" was a bust!


Last edited by Luanne Payne




Rotation Story:
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5



In the above schedule, we were able to show the same video to both groups because the video worked for both age groups.  It's a good example of how the particular RESOURCE you want to use might affect your schedule.  


The above schedule assumes you have two classes and two different spaces you can use each week.  The "Art" or Computer Workshop space could be converted to the DRAMA workshop for week 4 and 5, and the Cooking Workshop could move to the church kitchen.


A Note about the Cooking Workshop, ...combining then splitting in a Workshop.


Cooking Workshops are easier to pull-off with smaller groups than larger ones. This makes them a natural regular workshop in small churches, because even most small churches have kitchens. And it tends to be easier to combine age groups into one group for Cooking than it is for computer or drama, for example, because of the medium of food prep is less age specific. You might share the kitchen but still split into different discussion groups based on age.


The same can be done with Video IF the video is appropriate to show to both young and older, and then split the two groups when following up on the video in discussion.


This is harder to do with games, software, and drama.



A FOUR WEEK ROTATION with only two grade groups:


If we were using one video for younger, and a different video for our older kids, then we'd need to schedule two different Video Workshops.  If the computer software didn't work for the younger kids, we might do a "games" or "drama" lesson for them instead of computer. (See this in the schedule below)


If we were only doing a FOUR WEEK Rotation, we might CUT the Drama Workshop for the older kids and send BOTH classes to the Cooking Workshop in the church kitchen on Week 4.  It depends on the lesson ideas you have, your kids and your space.


Here's what those above ideas would look like in an example schedule:


Rotation Story:    
Week 1          
Week 2      
Week 3     
Week 4       



Of course, you can substitute in any other workshop for those listed in the examples.  Science for Drama, Games for Computer, etc.


Rotation Modelers love this kind of freedom to adapt to available space, resources, age ranges, and workshops ideas.


Last edited by Wormy the Helpful Worm

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